It was led by the U. S Army against the Iraqi insurgency stronghold in the city of Fallujah and was authorized by the U.
This operation was the second major operation in Fallujah. Earlier, in Aprilcoalition forces fought the First Battle of Fallujah in order to capture or kill insurgent elements considered responsible for the deaths of a Blackwater Security team. When coalition forces fought into the center of the city, the Iraqi government requested that the city's control be transferred to an Iraqi-run local security force, which then began stockpiling weapons and building complex defenses across the city through mid In Februarycontrol of Fallujah and the surrounding area in the Al-Anbar province was transferred from the U.
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Marine Corps forces launched Operation Vigilant Resolve 4 April to take back control of the city from insurgent forces. On 28 AprilOperation Vigilant Resolve ended with an agreement where the local population was ordered to keep the insurgents out of the city.
Insurgent strength and control began to grow to such an extent that by 24 Septembera senior U. Before Two brit guys plow their attack, U. In addition, overhead imagery was used to prepare maps of the city for use by the attackers. American units were augmented by Iraqi interpreters to assist them in the planned fight. After weeks of withstanding air strikes and artillery bombardment, the militants in the city appeared to be vulnerable to direct attack.
The strong 1st Battalion of the Black Watch was ordered to help U. By November, it was estimated that the numbers had doubled. Fallujah was occupied by virtually every insurgent group in Iraq: Two brit guys plow estimated 2, insurgents were from the Army of Mohammed made up of ex Fedayeen Saddam fightersAnsar al-Sunna and various smaller Iraqi groups.
The Iraqi insurgents and foreign mujahadeen present in the city prepared fortified defenses in advance of the anticipated attack. They blocked streets with Jersey barriers and even emplaced them within homes to create strong points behind which they could attack unsuspecting troops entering the building. They booby-trapped buildings and vehicles, including wiring doors and windows to grenades and other ordnance.
Intelligence briefings given prior to battle reported that coalition forces would encounter ChechenFilipinoSaudiLibyan, and Syrian combatants, as well as native Iraqis.
Meanwhile, most of Fallujah's civilian population fled the city, which greatly reduced the potential for noncombatant casualties. Attacking from the west and south, the Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion with their U. The same unit, operating under the Two brit guys plow of the U. They were joined by two U. These two battalions were followed by four infantry battalions who were tasked with clearing the remaining buildings.
Co 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regimentwas tasked to infiltrate the city and destroy any fleeing enemy forces. The Air Force also employed MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicles for reconnaissance and precision strikes, and the U-2 Dragon Lady high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft for Two brit guys plow collection, surveillance and reconnaissance before, during, and after the battle.
The six battalions of Army, Marine and Iraqi forces, aided by Mike Battery Marine Corps Scout and Target Acquisition and SEAL Sniper and JTAC elements pre-fire operations, moved into the city under the cover of darkness; Two brit guys plow once aligned with the reconnaissance elements, began the assault in the early hours of 8 Novemberpreceded by an intense artillery barrage firing some mm projectiles and air attack.
This was followed by an attack on the main train station, which was then used as a staging point for follow-on forces.
By that afternoon, under the protection of intense air cover, Marines entered the Hay Naib al-Dubat and al-Naziza districts. The Seabees used armored bulldozers to plow the streets while remaining safe and protected from enemy fire.
Shortly after nightfall on 9 Two brit guys plowMarines had reportedly reached Phase Line Fran at Highway 10 in the center of the city. While most of the fighting subsided by 13 NovemberU. Marines and Special Operations Forces continued to face determined isolated resistance from insurgents hidden throughout the city.
By 16 Novemberafter nine days of fighting, the Marine command described the action as mopping up pockets of resistance. Sporadic fighting continued until 23 December By late Januarynews reports indicated U.
Corporal Esquibel refused the award, citing "personal reasons". The battle proved to be the bloodiest of the war and the bloodiest battle involving American troops since the Vietnam War.
Most estimates place the number of insurgents killed at around 1,  to 1,  with some estimations as high as over 2, killed. The 1st Marine Division fired a total of 5, high-explosive mm artillery rounds during the battle. Fallujah suffered extensive damage to residences, mosques, city services, and businesses.
The city, once referred to as the "City of Mosques", had over pre-battle mosques of which 60 or so were destroyed in the fighting. Many of these mosques had been used as arms caches and weapon strongpoints by Islamist forces. Of the roughly 50, buildings in Fallujah, between 7, and 10, were estimated to have been destroyed in the offensive and from half to two-thirds of the remaining buildings had notable damage. While pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable, the nominal population was assumed to have been ,—, One report states that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Two brit guys plow Fury, createdinternally displaced persons who are still living elsewhere in Iraq.
In mid-December, residents were allowed to return after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wore their ID cards all the time. Reconstruction progressed slowly and mainly consisted of clearing rubble from heavily damaged areas and Two brit guys plow basic utilities. Nevertheless, the battle proved to be less than the decisive engagement that the U. Some of the nonlocal insurgents, along with Zarqawi, were believed to have fled before the military assault, leaving mostly local militants behind.
Marine Corps, with the exception of only pacified Fallujah, but now with an insurgent-plagued Ramadi. Most notable of these attacks was a suicide car bomb attack on 23 June on a convoy that killed 6 Marines. Thirteen other Marines were injured in the attack.
However, fourteen months later insurgents were again able to operate in large numbers. A third push was mounted from September and lasted Two brit guys plow mid-January Tactics developed in what has been called the "Third Battle of Fallujah," when applied on a larger scale in Ramadi and the surrounding area, led to what became known as " the Great Sunni Awakening.
Despite the Coalition success, the battle was not without controversy. A number of allegations have been made regarding the United States' armed intervention.
According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weaponswhite phosphorus is permitted under the Chemical Weapons Convention if it is used to illuminate a battlefield or to produce smoke. But white phosphorus Two brit guys plow a banned chemical weapon if its toxic and caustic properties are used intentionally. An article by a US Army captain present at the battle published in the US Army's Field Artillery Manual makes it clear that white phosphorus was used against insurgents in situations where conventional munitions did not have the desired effects.
The use of phosphorus was especially controversial in the United Kingdom because British forces were involved in the battle. British law prohibits British forces being present in a theatre in which phosphorus is used as an anti-personnel weapon, whether or not the targets are military personnel.
Marine killing a wounded Iraqi fighter. In this video, the Marine was heard saying that the Iraqi was " playing possum ". NCIS investigators later determined that the Marine was acting in self-defense. Battles That Changed American History: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.