The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho literally, "to be a macho" was an aspiration for Machismo scenes 1 boys.
During the women's liberation movement of the s and s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and violence.
The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy. Latin American scholars have noted that positive Machismo scenes 1 of machismo resemble the characteristics associated with the concept of caballerosidad.
Therefore, machismo, like all social constructions of identity, should be understood as having multiple layers. The word caballerosidad originates from the Spanish word caballeroSpanish for "horseman".
Caballerosidad refers to a chivalric masculine code of behavior. Note that the English term also stems from the Latin root caballus, through Machismo scenes 1 French chevalier.
Like the English chivalric code, caballerosidad developed out of a medieval socio-historical class system in which people of wealth and status owned horses for transportation and other forms of horsepower whereas the lower classes did not.
It was also associated with the class of knights in the feudal system. There is controversy surrounding the concept of machismo as originally from Spanish and Portuguese descent. The use of Spanish and Portuguese produces historical colonial connotations through its Machismo scenes 1 of Spanish and Portuguese masculine social construction, when the term should be used to describe specific Latin American historical masculinities.
In addition, by identifying Machismo scenes 1 as a form of Europeanness, it offers legitimacy to the concept of a wicked formed of the same Western hypermasculinity known to Protestant Reforme-derived cultures and subjugates Latin America's understanding of itself and its cultural history and peculiarities. For example, the use of caballerosidadCavalheirismo,to mean only the positive characteristics of machismo is imbued with feudal and colonial connotations relating to colonial power relations.
This is because the origin of the word caballero resides in feudal Spanish descriptions of landlords Machismo scenes 1 reached through and into the colonial era, exalts  European culture in comparison to the so-called Latin American machismo animalesque, irrational, violent, backward.
Researchers are concerned regarding the unbalanced representation of machismo within Latin American cultures, and are now focused on creating a balanced representation.
The negative construct of machismo is based on the traditional Western concept of hypermasculinity, and is predominant within mainstream discourse, without an acknowledgement towards its resemblance towards hypermasculinty.
Caballerosidad 's characteristics are exalted, while machismo's characteristics are seen as predominantly negative.
The other side of machismo, the positive side caballerosidadcavalheirismorefers to a connection to family and chivalry. However, the focus on the negative aspects and avoidance of positive aspects of machismo coincides with Machismo scenes 1 concept of marginalization and powerlessness  of Hispanic and Latino, and more broadly Romance-speaking European culture-derived, narratives. This is because the focus on the negative and avoidance of the positive Machismo scenes 1 a power dynamic that legitimizes mainstream American hegemonic masculinity as the correct masculinity and subjugates machismo as a degenerated "non-white" form of abuse against women and backwardness.
As a result, it creates a sense of powerlessness within Latino males in their expression of their masculinity.
The phenomena of gender-based belief systems Machismo scenes 1 negative and positive effects is described as ambivalent sexismwhich is made of hostile sexism and Machismo scenes 1 sexism. Academics have noted that there are consequences of only Machismo scenes 1 a negative definition for Hispanic and Latino masculinity in popular literature.
Accordingly, they link these expressions as contributing to a lack of interest in academics as well as behavioural struggles in schools for Latino male youth. Throughout popular literature, the term has continued to be associated with negative characteristics, such as sexismmisogynychauvinismhypermasculinityand hegemonic masculinity.
Authors from a various disciplines typified macho men as domineering through intimidation, seducing and controlling women and children through violence and intimidation. For example, in American literature, an example of machismo comes from Tennessee Williams ' character Stanley Kowalskian egotistical brother-in-law, from A Streetcar Named Desire. In the play and film adaptationStanley epitomizes the tough, alpha-male hypermasculine archetypesocially and physically dominating and imposing his will upon his wife and her sister, Blanche Dubois.
Bound up with Stanley's aggressive and occasionally misogynistic views is a strong sense of pride and honor which leads to his hatred of Blanche. In the play A View from the Bridge by Arthur Millerone of the main characters, Eddie, is a classic type who displays machismo. He wants to be the best of the men around him and when beaten, becomes very agitated and increasingly irrational. The negative stereotypes depicted in American literature are not representative of all the different layers of machismo.
Machismo has been influenced and supported by many different factors. The Catholic religion plays a vital role to many within the Spanish community. For this reason the male dominated world that is often referenced in the Bible is seen among the people. Examples can be found throughout the Bible showing how women should be submissive to their husbands: The revolution of copper mining sets the tone of traditional masculinity.
Women's presence in social settings is not prominent, so men's dominance and inevitable homosocial interactions create kinship and brotherhood. Exploitation of masculinity through the context of miners is Machismo scenes 1 and embodied by Chilean males.
As a colony of the U.
S Puerto Rico tends to take on the same progressive movements as U. In regards to equality and what separates men and women, gender roles determine what is socially acceptable in different geographical areas.
In Puerto Rico the machismo culture has or had a strong presence. Men were to work outside the home, manage the finances, and make the decisions. Women were to be subordinate to their husbands and be the homemakers. Women would often would have to be dependent on men for everything. Growing up boys are taught to the machismo code girls are taught the marianismo code. Machismo is a term originating in the early s and 40s best defined as having masculinity and Pride.
Machismo is a factor challenged among different groups due to how an ideal man is expected to be portrayed which builds pressure. Mentally men may feel the need to take up more opportunities to meet expectations, such as supporting the home, or maintaining employment leading to stress. This may also take a toll as physically well straining to be strong and overexerting the body, or the Machismo scenes 1 of putting on weight by not having the desired physique and feeling inferior.
This is further expressed through Puerto Ricans Americans outside the island. However, the roles are beginning to shift as women's rights and equality movements sweep the mainland, Puerto Rico is beginning to feel the effects.
While Puerto Ricans may be motivated by the progressive of the mainland they base their movements off of their situations in Puerto Rico. Beginning in the s the Machismo scenes 1 rate for women began to rise as the employment rate fell due to the island's industrialization. Also, during the s to s the field of the white collar women emerged furthering the rise in women employment.
However, women were not released from their homemaker duties because they had a job. In fact, women were now expected to contribute to the household's finances and be the homemaker. This caused a shift in what was acceptable in households.