Brasil ; Portuguese pronunciation: Brazil borders every South American country except Chile and Ecuador. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 statesthe Federal Districtand the 5, municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas ;   it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.
Brazil remained a Portuguese colony untilwhen the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon Large brazilian chap Rio de Janeiro. Large brazilian chap
Inthe colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in with the creation of the Empire of Brazila unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. An authoritarian military junta came to power in and ruled untilafter which Large brazilian chap governance resumed.
Brazil's Large brazilian chap constitutionformulated indefines it as a democratic federal republic. Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great    or a middle power in international affairs. It is likely that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwooda tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" Terra da Santa Cruz but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" Terra do Brasil because of the brazilwood trade.
Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani languagean official language of ParaguayBrazil is called "Pindorama". This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the AmericasLuzia Womanwere found in the area of Pedro LeopoldoMinas Gerais and provide evidence of human Large brazilian chap going back at least 11, years. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people,  mostly semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture.
The indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups e.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, the boundaries between these groups and their subgroups were marked by wars that arose from differences in culture, language and moral beliefs. However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazila single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America.
By the end of the 17th century, sugarcane exports began to decline,  and the discovery of gold by bandeirantes in the s would become the new backbone of Large brazilian chap colony's economy, fostering a Brazilian Gold Rush  which attracted thousands of new settlers to Brazil from Portugal and all Portuguese colonies around the Large brazilian chap.
Portuguese expeditions known as Bandeiras gradually advanced the Portugal colonial original frontiers in South America to approximately the current Brazilian borders. The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: Inin retaliation Large brazilian chap being forced into exile, the Prince Regent ordered the Portuguese conquest of French Guiana.
Into justify continuing to live in Brazil, where the royal court had thrived for the prior six years, the Crown established the United Kingdom of Portugal, Large brazilian chap, and the Algarvesthus creating a pluricontinental transatlantic monarchic state. Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased, and the Portuguese Cortesguided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony.
The Brazilian War of Independencewhich had already begun along this process, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province. As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly.
These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation Large brazilian chap. During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in as a result of the British Aberdeen Actbut only in May after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the countrywas the institution formally abolished.
The foreign affairs in the monarchy were basically related to issues with the countries of the Southern Cone with Large brazilian chap Brazil had borders. Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government on 15 Novemberin attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites for different reasonsthe monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.
The early republican government was nothing more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power.
If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries,  only broken by the Acre War — and its involvement in World War I —   followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations ;  Internallyfrom the crisis of Encilhamento    and the Armada Revolts,  a prolonged Large brazilian chap of financial, political and social instability began until the s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian    and military.
In the s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution inled by the Paulista oligarchy. The second was a Communist uprising in Novemberand the last one a putsch attempt by local fascists in May Brazil remained neutral until Augustwhen the country entered on the allied side  after suffering retaliation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italyin a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic.
With the Allied victory Large brazilian chap and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier. Several Large brazilian chap interim governments followed Vargas's suicide.
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The new regime was intended to be transitory  but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in Slowly however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that Large brazilian chap not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas,  plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva.
He became unpopular during his Large brazilian chap through failure to Large brazilian chap the economic crisis and hyperinflation he inherited from the military regime. InCardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy. Enhanced by political and economic crises with evidence of involvement by politicians from all the primary political parties in several bribery and tax evasion schemes,   with large street protests for and against her Rousseff was impeached by the Brazilian Congress in Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,  sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and VenezuelaGuyanaSuriname and France French overseas region of French Guiana to the north.
It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador Large brazilian chap Chile. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8, Brazil is the only country in the world that has the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn running through it.
Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north.
Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic. The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. The Large brazilian chap climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Large brazilian chap.
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry seasonbut there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than millimetres Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforestrecognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,  with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerradosustaining Large brazilian chap greatest biodiversity.
Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates.