Hazing US Englishinitiation ceremonies  British Englishbastardisation Australian Englishragging South Asiaor depositionrefers to the practice of ritualschallenges, Haze him 3 other activities involving harassmentabuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, sorority, team, or club.
Hazing is seen in many different types of social groups, including gangssports teamsschools, military unitsand fraternities and sororities.
The initiation rites can range from relatively benign pranks to protracted patterns of behavior that rise to the level of abuse or criminal misconduct. It may also include nudity or sexual assault.
In some languages, terms with a religious theme or etymology are preferred, such as baptism or purgatory e. In Swedishthe term used is nollningliterally "zeroing" from the fact that when you start your first year, you're a "one'er", but Haze him 3 passing the rite you are a "zero". In Portugal, the term praxewhich literally means "practice" or "habit", is used for initiation.
In Brazil, it is called trote and is usually practiced at universities by older students doutores and veteranos against newcomers calouros in the first week of their first semester. In the Italian military, instead, the term used was nonnismofrom nonno literally "grandfather"a jargon term used for the soldiers who had already served for most of their draft period. At education establishments in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Haze him 3 Lanka, this practice involves existing students baiting new students and is called ragging.
In Polish schools, hazing is known as kocenie literally cattingcoming from the noun kot cat. It often features cat-related activities, like competitive milk drinking.
Other popular tasks include measuring a long distance i. Often Haze him 3 or all of the endurance or the more serious ordeal is concentrated in a single session, which may be called hell nightor prolonged to a hell weeksometimes again at the pledge's [ clarification needed ] birthday e. Unlike hazing in many other places, zubur is typically used to mark the achievement of important milestones in an ironic 'don't get too big for your britches' waysuch as after a pilot's first solo flight.
Hazing activities can involve forms of ridicule and humiliation within the group or in public, while other hazing incidents are Haze him 3 to pranks. A snipe hunt is such a prank, when a newcomer or credulous person is given an impossible task. Examples of snipe hunts include being sent to find a "dough repair kit" in a bakery,  while in the early s rookies in the Canadian military were ordered to obtain a "brass magnet" when brass is not magnetic.
Spanking is done mainly in the form of paddling among fraternities, sororities and similar clubs, sometimes over a lap, a knee, furniture or a pillow, but mostly with the victim "assuming the position", i. This practice is also used in the military. The hazee may be humiliated by being hosed or by sprinkler or buckets; covered with dirt or with sometimes rotten food, even urinated upon.
Olive or baby oil may be used to "show off" the bare skin, for wrestling or just slipperiness, e. Cleaning may be limited to a dive into water, hosing down or even paddling the Haze him 3 off. They may have to do tedious cleaning including swabbing the decks or cleaning the toilets with a toothbrush. In fraternities, pledges often must clean up a mess intentionally made by brothers which can include fecal matter, urine, and dead animals.
Servitude such as waiting on others as at fraternity parties or various other forms of housework, often with tests of obedience. In some cases, the hazee may be made to eat raw eggs, peppers, hot sauce, or drink too much alcohol.
Some hazing even includes Haze him 3 or drinking vile things such as bugs or rotting food.
The hazee may have to wear an imposed piece of clothing, outfit, item or something else worn by the victim in a way that would bring negative attention to the wearer. Examples include a uniform e. Markings may also be made Haze him 3 clothing or bare skin. They are painted, written, tattooed or shaved on, Haze him 3 collectively forming a message one letter, syllable or word on each pledge or may receive tarring and feathering or rather a mock version using some glue or branding.
Submission to senior members of the group is Haze him 3. Abject "etiquette" required of pledges or subordinates may include prostration, kneeling, literal groveling, and kissing body parts.
Other physical feats may be required, such as calisthenics and other physical tests, such as mud wrestlingforming a human pyramidor climbing a greased pole. Exposure to the elements may be required, such as swimming or diving in cold water or snow. Orientation tests may be held, such as abandoning pledges without transport. Dares include jumping from some height, stealing from police or rival teams and obedience. On a pilot's first solo flightthey are often drenched with water, as well as having the back of their shirt cut off to celebrate the achievement.
Cutting off the back of the shirt originates from the days of tandem trainers, where Haze him 3 instructor sat behind the student and tugged on the back of their shirt in order to get their attention. Cutting off the back of the shirt symbolizes that the instructor has no need to do that anymore. On their first crossing the equator in military and commercial navigation, each "pollywog" is subjected to a series of tests usually including running or crawling a gauntlet of abuse and various scenes supposedly situated at King Neptune's court.
A pledge auction is a variation on the slave auctionwhere people bid on the paraded pledges.
Hazing may also include subjecting the pledge to severe sleep deprivation until physical or mental impairment or hallucinations, including cardiac, digestive or excretory disturbances, are induced, Haze him 3 deliberate food poisonings unbeknownst to the pledge, sometimes through food outlets that are owned or franchised by members of the group, as well as public incidents, stunt accidents and vehicle collisions directed at the pledge by other persons using false identities who are unfamiliar to the pledge, and the practice of "The Silence", which is to gaslight the hazee, pretending not to know anything about the hazing or anything about the arguments being presented by the hazing, in order to force the pledge to doubt his or her sanity or self-worth.
This method usually attempts to make everything that could go wrong, go wrong to the fault of the pledge, even when such errors are discreetly inflicted by the hazers.
The hazers may deny the validity of the pledge's witness to events, discoveries, ideas and inventions, tangible reality, Haze him 3 falsify personal relationships. When the hazers are associated with a larger organization, for instance, a major university that controls the local public hospitals, a pledge may encounter abusive behaviors or neglect when seeking needed medical help when the doctors or personnel are of the fraternity.
This may also occur when the pledge seeks help from public employees who are also associated.
This is done in order to Haze him 3 the pledge from their personal identity, their needs and others. Hazings may occur in the home against nonconsenting, involuntary pledges when the family or cohabitants are already members Haze him 3 an organization or group that exercises hazing as a prerequisite for membership, even when "the pledge" has refused to join the group. The pledge may not have previously been informed of his or her cohabitant's association, particularly when such associations involve a covert organization.
The hazers may attempt to inflict guilt on a sleep-deprived and beleaguered pledge "for providing a home", or they may fake "family emergencies or tragedies" against any prevailing medical needs of the pledge due to neglect and abuse. In this instance, the subject may be branded as "pariah" or as an "outcast", in which case they are then subjected to neglect, abuse, violence, or methods such as "The Silence", and at risk of persecution if and when they speak of their hazing experiences to others outside of the group.
This may be particularly true when the Haze him 3 or group has violated civil rights, or the law. They may mislead the pledge due to a financial conflict of interest, for instance, a hazing by a family who is in charge of a guardian trust belonging to the pledge, or due to Haze him 3 unlawful advantage of the pledge, their person or their property rights. This form of hazing may be unlawfully executed in order to force the pledge to release the hazers from their liabilities, as an act of extortion.
Hazing also occurs for apprentices in some trades. In printing, it consists of applying bronze blue to the apprentice's penis and testiclesa color made by mixing black printers ink and dark blue printers ink, which takes a long time to wash off.
Similarly, mechanics get their groins smeared with old dirty grease.
Hazing by women of their suitors, often assisted by the women's friends, can also play a role in budding romantic relationships, usually taking mental and psychological rather than physical forms, and apparently for the same basic purposes as other hazing.
Hazing supposedly serves a deliberate purpose of building solidarity. Psychologist Robert Cialdini uses the framework of consistency Haze him 3 commitment to explain the phenomenon of hazing and the vigor and zeal to which practitioners of hazing persist in and defend these activities even when they are made illegal.
Psychologists excel at understanding and explaining why certain group behaviors occur, especially when it comes to hazing; there are studies that better explain what actually happens psychologically and provide more insight into what happens within themselves.
There are many different types of hazing. In an article published by Raalte, Cornelius, Linder, and Brewer, they used team sports as a sample of their study. In the article, there seemed to be a more positive outlook of the idea of hazing. Maybe someone is a social outcast and their only way to gain recognition is to join a certain club or organization.
If they were to haze that person, it would show to himself and Haze him 3 others that his means to be accepted knows no bounds. Beyond a legal approach, eliminating or lessening the dangers of hazing requires an understanding and application of psychological Haze him 3 sociological factors.
This is especially critical when many view hazing as an effective way to teach respect and develop discipline and loyalty within the group, and believe Haze him 3 hazing is a necessary component of initiation rites.
Dissonance can produce feelings of group attraction or social identity among initiates after the hazing experience because they want to justify the effort used. Rewards during initiations or hazing rituals matter in that initiates who feel more rewarded express stronger group identity. In an article published by Linda Wilson, she and the National Pan-Hellenic Council Leaders at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University gave their perspectives and opinions on hazing at their institution, and she discussed why hazing is so hard to discontinue.
The reason why is because the act of hazing is deeply rooted traditionally, so it becomes hard to break those traditional actions. However, it's hard to dismantle not only because of tradition, but also because it's meant to be done in private spaces. It isn't meant to be public which Haze him 3 getting rid of it even harder. A paper by Harvey Whitehouse  discusses theories that hazing can cause social cohesion though group identification and identity fusion.
A study published in Scientific Reports found that groups that share painful or strong negative experiences can cause visceral [ vague ] bonding, and pro-group behavior. According to one of the largest US National Surveys regarding hazing including over 60, student athletes from 2, colleges and universities: Overathletes at more than 1, National Collegiate Athletic Association schools in the US participated in intercollegiate sports during — The most common Haze him 3 activities reported in student groups included alcohol consumption, humiliation, isolation, sleep deprivation, and sex acts.
Some chapters of fraternities and sororities have developed complex hazing rituals that range from demeaning tasks to embarrassing ceremonies. These practices are most common in, but not limited to, North American schools. The armed forces have Haze him 3 had hazing rituals, which often involve violence and punishments. The United States military defines hazing as unnecessarily exposing a fellow soldier to an act which is cruel, abusive, oppressive, or harmful. In the modern western military, which combines discipline with welfare priorities, initiation practices can cause controversy.
Police forces, especially those with a paramilitary tradition, or sub-units of police forces such as tactical teams, may also have hazing rituals. Rescue services, such as lifeguards   or air-sea rescue teams may have hazing rituals. In the Netherlands, the so-called 'traditional fraternities' have an introduction time which includes hazing rituals.
Haze him 3 pledges go for a few days to a camp during which they undergo hazing rituals but are meanwhile introduced in the traditions of the fraternity. After camp, there are usually evenings or whole days in which the pledges have to be present at the fraternity, although slowly the pressure is released and the relations become somewhat more equal. Often, pledges collect or perform chores to raise funds for charity.
At the end of the hazing period, the inauguration of the new members take place. Incidents have occurred resulting in injuries and death.
Often these incidents occur when members wish to join a house, prestigious sub-structure or commission for which they undergo a second and usually heavier hazing ritual. Incidents mostly occur during hazing rituals for these sub-structures, since there is less or no control from the fraternity board. Also, these sub-structure hazing rituals involve often excessive Haze him 3 abuse, even when alcohol has become a taboo in hazing of the fraternity itself.