Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section.
InCanada and the United States began working together to identify opportunities to establish new modes of cooperation in the areas of asylum and immigration; this collaboration is known as the Asylum Cooperation Action Plan ACAP. A representative of the Mexican Embassy in San Salvador also participated. The joint mission was carried out from 11 to 15 April Following the completion of the joint mission, the IRB conducted its own research for one further week in El Salvador.
The purpose of this was to meet with additional expert sources not included in the joint mission agenda due to time constraints, to gather corroborating and contrasting information, and to enable the IRB's Research Directorate to develop Gang exercice part 3 contacts, strengthen existing ones, and obtain information uniquely needed to support the IRB's decision-making on refugee status determination now or in the future.
This report summarizes the information gathered by the representatives of the IRB during both the joint mission and during the IRB's additional week of research.
The mission consisted of a series of meetings with experts and officials from relevant governmental, non-governmental, academic, and research-focused organizations. For details on the organizations and individuals consulted during this mission, please refer to the section entitled Notes on Interlocutors at the end Gang exercice part 3 this Paper.
The interlocutors chosen as oral sources to be interviewed were identified by the delegation based on their position and expertise. However, the list of sources should not be considered exhaustive in terms of the scope and complexity of Gang exercice part 3 rights issues in El Salvador, given the time constraints that the delegation had to undertake the mission.
Interview questions posed to interlocutors were formulated in line with the Terms of Reference for the mission see Appendix. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured approach to adapt to the expertise of the interlocutor s being interviewed. Interlocutors' responses to these questions varied depending on their willingness and preparedness to address them, and the length of time granted for the interview.
In accordance with the Research Directorate's methodology, which relies on publicly available information, interlocutors were advised that the information they provided would form the basis of a report on country conditions. This report would be publicly accessible and used by decision-makers adjudicating refugee claims in Canada. Furthermore, interlocutors were asked to consent to being cited by name for the information they provided.
This Paper examines the situation of crime, gangs, internal relocation, and state protection mechanisms available for victims of crime. A second, separate Paper, will provide information about the situation of gender-based and domestic violence against women, as well as the situation of LGBTI people, and the legal recourse available to them.
El Salvador has an estimated population of 6, people and a land area of approximately 20, square kilometers; approximately the size of New Jersey. In the s, the US undertook Gang exercice part 3 scale Gang exercice part 3 of non-US citizens of Central American origin back to their countries of origin,4 after serving time in jail.
Inthe Salvadoran government instituted mano dura heavy handed and super mano dura super heavy handed policies to deal with the rising violence committed by gangs12 by adopting measures that included immediate imprisonment for certain appearances and behaviours, such as having a tattoo,13 apparel and mode of dressing, hair cut style, and being in groups. During the mission, several sources described the level of crime in El Salvador as "critical.
El Salvador's homicide rate for was homicides perinhabitants,23 while for it was According to El Faro, the security problems due to gangs in El Salvador are "very complex. He gave the view that "the problem Gang exercice part 3 not of resources, but lack of leadership and competent people to govern and carry out the projects.
He also pointed out to existing corruption Gang exercice part 3 impedes the efficient execution of government projects. According to SCIS, El Salvador is becoming what they describe as a "survival economy," due to the instability of economic livelihoods.
Journalists practice self-censorship and are vulnerable to criminal organizations. They are also threatened or killed for not giving broadcast access for gang members to appear Gang exercice part 3 the media. The MS and M declared a truce with one another between and in order to establish a dialogue with the government. However, several sources indicated that during the truce, gangs became more powerful. Gaborit, if the homicide rate decreases, it is not by the government's action, but that of the gangs decisions; and if extortions decrease, it is not by the government's actions, but because gangs have strategically determined to do so.
Sources indicate that despite the lowering of homicides during the truce, the number of extortions, threats,41 and disappearances42 increased.
For more information, see section 4. El Faro indicated that gangs are the natural expression of the absence of the state. Gaborit explained that in El Salvador, the state has not invested in the population or in communities by providing adequate access to education, health Gang exercice part 3, and infrastructure, leaving people highly vulnerable to crime, living in poverty, and lacking employment opportunities. This creates the conditions for crime organizations to develop and grow.
Gaborit indicated that the territory gives gangs their identity, security, income, a large network of collaborators and sympathizers, and "a community that will not say anything to authorities.
Information about the number of gang members in El Salvador varies. The territorial presence of gangs has increased significantly in recent years and the control they exert in communities has become stronger.
Gangs exert their influence all over the country. During the mission, several sources pointed out that gangs are seen as the de facto authorities in many communities. Sources indicated that gang control has taken deep roots inside their communities50 to the point of changing the lifestyles of many Gang exercice part 3.
Some norms are unspoken, yet common. For example, Gang exercice part 3 must advise gangs of any visit by someone from outside the neighbourhood to avoid problems, and the gang determines and controls the entry procedure a person must follow when entering the neighbourhood, such as turning off headlights or using high beams, lowering the windows, or honking.
In some cases, a rumour about gangs can change the lifestyle of residents. El Faro provided the example of a rumour that gangs indicated that all women who work in downtown San Salvador and who have their hair tinted blond would be killed because only the partners of gang members were permitted to have blond hair. The next day all women who were not gang partners and who had blond hair tinted it with another colour. Gangs routinely impose curfews Gang exercice part 3 neighbourhoods, especially when they want to take precautionary measures for an imminent attack or when they are going to execute an action.
Gaborit, curfews and other methods of curbing the free movement of people, such as giving orders to stop bus transit, thereby paralyzing public transportation, are also used by gangs to signal their strength to the government; displaying that they have the power to exert such control. The gang leaders Gang exercice part 3 the community also intervene to settle conflicts among residents in the neighbourhood.
The gang leader reportedly threatened her husband and the violence against her ceased. The fight for territorial control among gangs creates invisible lines that act as de facto borders and affect the freedom of movement of inhabitants.