Participants were re-interviewed approximately 3 years later mean [SD] Cb kl and mo unprotected, 3. Nearly three quarters of youth engaged in one or more unprotected sexual risk behaviors at follow-up.
Among youth living in the community, many behaviors were more prevalent at follow-up than at baseline. Among incarcerated youth, the opposite pattern prevailed.
Yet, injection risk behaviors were more prevalent among females than males and were also more likely to develop and persist. Our study has two methodological strengths: In this article, we address three questions: Our data are from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth.
Additional information on our methods has been published elsewhere. Despite repeated attempts to contact the parent or guardian, for In lieu of parental consent, an independent participant advocate representing the interests of the participants oversaw youth assent.
Federal regulations allow for a participant advocate if parental consent is not feasible 45 CFR Among the youth sampled during this period, 3. One participant was released from detention before finishing the interview; participants left the detention center while we were locating their caretakers Cb kl and mo unprotected obtain consent or before we could schedule an interview.
Time to follow-up was between 2. Forty-five participants of the participants were excluded from our analyses: In addition, we examined whether our findings were affected by including these participants.
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We repeated all analyses using only participants interviewed within 3. At baseline, participants were aged 10 to 18 years mean [SD] age, At follow-up, participants were aged 13 to 22 years mean [SD] age, Time to follow-up was 2. At the baseline interview, face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted at the detention center in a private area; most interviews took place within 2 days of intake.
Participants were interviewed in the community Baseline and follow-up interviews took 2 to 4 hours to complete. Most interviewers had advanced degrees in psychology or an associated field and had experience interviewing at-risk youth. All interviewers were trained for at least 1 month by one of the authors KMA and other supervisory staff. One third of the interviewers were fluent in Spanish. At baseline, lifetime drug use was assessed using screen items one for each substance from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version 2.
To assess the effect Cb kl and mo unprotected attrition on generalizability, we compared participants who provided follow-up data with those who did not on the following variables: There were no significant differences except: Because telephone interviews needed to be shorter than face-to-face interviews, they are missing the following variables at follow-up: We also examined incarceration status since baseline.
Taylor series linearization was used to estimate standard errors. Changes in the prevalence of behaviors between the baseline and follow-up interviews were assessed using paired differences with an adjusted Wald F statistic. We tested for differences between specific groups e. We controlled for incarceration status in all analyses by either 1 computing separate prevalence rates for those incarcerated and those in the community, or 2 including incarceration status in logistic regression models.
Table 1 shows that prevalence of the following behaviors increased at follow-up: Table 1 also shows differences by incarceration status.
Among males in the community, most behaviors were more prevalent at follow-up. Only two behaviors, recent and frequent use of marijuanawere significantly less prevalent.
Among incarcerated males, the opposite pattern prevailed; many behaviors were less prevalent at follow-up.
Only one behavior, oral sex with a high-risk partnerwas significantly more prevalent. Table 2 shows that the prevalence of the following behaviors increased at follow-up: Table 2 also reports differences by incarceration status.
Among females in the community, many behaviors were more prevalent at follow-up. Among incarcerated females, the opposite pattern prevailed; only one behavior, oral sex, was significantly more prevalent. Table 1 shows that at follow-up, nearly all males were sexually active, had vaginal sex, and used alcohol and marijuana.
The prevalence Cb kl and mo unprotected unprotected sex in the past three months was also notable: Table 1 also shows that at follow-up, more males in the community than incarcerated males reported the following behaviors: In contrast, more incarcerated males engaged in anal sex with a high-risk partner than those in the community.
Table 2 shows that at follow-up, nearly all females were sexually active and had vaginal sex; over four fifths used alcohol and marijuana. Table 2 also shows that at follow-up, more females in the community than incarcerated females reported the following behaviors: There were many gender differences, which are reported in Table 2. More males than females reported the following behaviors: In contrast, more females than males reported the following behaviors: Table 3 shows that many participants who had not reported risk behaviors at baseline had developed them by follow-up.
Table 3 shows that at follow-up, more males than females had begun engaging in the following behaviors: In contrast, at follow-up more females than males had begun engaging in receptive anal sex, use of substances other than alcohol and marijuana, and injection drugs. Table Cb kl and mo unprotected shows that there were few racial and ethnic differences in the development of risk behaviors; most involved the initiation of substance use among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics.
More non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics than African Americans had begun engaging in recent use of alcohol, use of substances other than alcohol or marijuana, recent use of substances other than alcohol or marijuana, and frequent use of substances other than alcohol or marijuana.