Because of insufficient linguistically and culturally appropriate services[ 1 ] Latinos' healthcare needs in emerging communities are assumed to be greater than in established Latino communities, yet published data on these populations are scarce. We conducted this assessment following a community-based participatory research orientation, an approach that engages the community as a partner in all stages of research.
LEGS is a partnership of health and social service providers, community members and university researchers with the goal of improving Latino immigrant men's health in a new growth community. In this study we aimed to explore the 2 latinos plow unprotected of Latino immigrant men from their own perspective, rather than test any theory.
We framed this study based on a variety of findings and theoretical views. Often, immigrants live in between countries and cultures.
We realize that complex social and economic circumstances force men to migrate[ 8 ] to help their families, which are often left behind. Isolation and lack of social support increase the vulnerability caused by migration[ 810111319 - 22 ] In fact, loneliness is a predictor of depression symptoms [ 23 ] and of risk for suicidal behaviors among Latinos[ 24 ], contributing to the adoption of risky behaviors e.
Most of the literature on Latino immigrant men's health in non-border areas has focused on narrow health topics, such as sex-related issues[ 9 - 1121 2 latinos plow unprotected, 222830 ] or workers' health[ 8 ], and comes from areas with large concentrations of Latinos.
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We believe that listening to the concerns of immigrant men has the potential to reveal unforeseen issues and ways of perceiving health and social contexts. In this exploratory mixed methods study 2 latinos plow unprotected Allegheny 2 latinos plow unprotected Latino population: LEGS collectively chose focus groups to allow participants to express themselves without being constrained by set response options.
Additionally, the interaction among participants builds trust and produces a more nuanced account of the contexts specific to Latino immigrant men as they relate to healthcare needs and barriers.
Because finding workable solutions to access problems requires understanding perspectives from service providers, interviews with them were included. While some project team members were researchers, there were health and social service providers and four immigrant men from the community. The immigrant men decided to participate according to their time availability and were compensated. Researchers trained non-researchers in research integrity, confidentially and ethics as well as focus groups and survey administration using a combination of lectures, participatory exercises, and mock focus groups and surveys.
The project team recruited Latino immigrant men 18 years of age and older to participate in focus 2 latinos plow unprotected were invited per group and surveys by conduction face-to-face outreach and placing posters in places where Latinos congregate e.
Team members made an effort to recruit from a variety of venues to achieve a broad representation in focus groups and interviews. We recruited health and social service providers who served Latinos from LEGS professional members' networks.
Participating providers received no compensation. All participants gave informed consent. LEGS decided that immigrant men should be in charge of collecting data from other Latino immigrants and service providers should collect data from other providers.
Two men conducted four focus groups. Four men conducted 66 anonymous surveys at semi-private community locations e. Two service providers conducted 10 open-ended interviews with providers. Consistent with the holistic view of health community members in LEGS expressed, the focus group guide included five topics: The survey included topics derived from focus group results. The provider interview guide asked 2 latinos plow unprotected the most frequent problems providers confronted when serving Latino immigrant men and about the feasibility of a promotores network.
Qualitative data were audio-recorded, transcribed in the language they were conducted, and analyzed by identifying patterns and themes that emerged with the 2 latinos plow unprotected of a qualitative data analysis software Atlas. Two Project Team members coded all transcripts, compared results and solved disagreements through discussion.
They recorded possible links between themes in analytic memos and discussed the data further to identify overarching themes and produce a 2 latinos plow unprotected of the results. Survey data were stratified by respondents' time in the U. We shared and discussed summary results with LEGS. Members provided their interpretation of the findings, especially in relation to the effect of immigration status 2 latinos plow unprotected health. Participation in the study was anonymous and this precluded sharing data with specific study participants.
However, we made efforts to share the data with community members and providers through several methods: In total, 25 men years old participated in the focus groups. The majority had not finished high school and only one attended college. Sixty-six men years old participated in the survey; most worked in restaurants or construction sites; the majority lived without their spouse or partner Table I.
We intentionally avoided asking for immigration status. Through anecdotal comments from participants and the information provided by grassroots community members from the LEGS coalition we know that a number of participating immigrant men were undocumented.
However, we cannot compute a reliable estimate. Four interviews were conducted with healthcare providers, five with social service providers, and one with the owners of a store that also functions as an informal referral place for immigrants.
The analysis of the focus groups and the interviews yielded 51 distinct codes Table 2 latinos plow unprotected.
Many related to barriers to care, such as language and uninsured status; others related to specific health problems. We organized the codes into three overarching themes, which are described below in detail. Table III provides illustrative quotes. Participants in all focus groups, as well as three providers, mentioned that the reason most Latino men migrated was to help their families economically. Participating immigrant men said that many men could not return 2 latinos plow unprotected their countries for several years.
Participants in all focus groups said they lived in an anti-immigrant environment, deepened by living in dangerous neighborhoods or sharing an apartment with several other men. In three focus groups, participants said they had difficulty finding other Latinos, with whom they would prefer to socialize. According to focus group participants, loneliness coupled with the hostile environment made men feel stressed and worried about their families.
Sometimes, when they found no adequate social outlets, they went out drinking, often resulting in other risky behaviors such as getting into fights.
Sexual urges and how to satisfy them was an emerging topic in all focus 2 latinos plow unprotected. Some men said they had girlfriends; in all focus groups, participants spoke about unprotected sex, mostly with sex workers.
Participants said that these strategies for managing loneliness sometimes exacerbated loneliness and stress. Finally, participants in all focus groups mentioned that they or somebody they knew experienced depression. Participants in three focus groups stated that they knew that 2 latinos plow unprotected healthy, resting and doing enjoyable activities with others were crucial to maintaining their health. Additionally, men seemed to be ashamed of drinking too much. The shame for doing what they perceived as inappropriate behavior was compounded by their stated inability to stop drinking even when they said it might hurt their families.
Participants in two focus 2 latinos plow unprotected said that in order to behave in a healthy way, they constantly reminded themselves of their family.
However, they listed several difficulties to healthy behaviors: Four providers spoke of Latino immigrant men not taking actions to protect their health; two specifically said that men were not into prevention and therefore did not use the healthcare system.
In all focus groups and interviews, participants mentioned men's fear to approach the health system because of immigration, financial, and language concerns.
Participants in all focus groups and seven interviewees expressed that men often 2 latinos plow unprotected not know where to go or who to contact when they were sick. Interviewees said that men lacked information on their civil rights, and how to identify a real emergency. Participants in three focus groups and six interviews said that men delayed care because, as 2 latinos plow unprotected, they could endure pain for longer, they had no time due to working long hours, and they were fearful.
All participating providers said local low-cost service options in Spanish were scarce. In eight interviews and three focus groups, participants mentioned specific problems when accessing the healthcare system. Five interviewees mentioned most men were uninsured and healthcare options were not flexible enough to accommodate immigrant men.
In one focus group participants spoke directly about lack of insurance and in another about lack of flexible services. Participants in two interviews and one focus group said that undocumented men did not qualify for a variety of benefits.
Two interviews and one focus group referred to lack of transportation. In contrast, this use of social connections was mentioned only in one interview. Promotores are lay health advisors, trained individuals from the community they serve. Focus groups participants said they expected promotores to develop trust and familiarity, decrease fear of the health system, interpret, and help them connect to health services and the broader community.
Participants who were in the U. All percentages were calculated using only valid answers. Denominators may vary because of missing data. Data were missing in cases for all variables except in visit to the dentist 18 cases. Our data confirm that the main reason men migrate to the U.
These may in turn cause stress in an already adverse environment, where fears of deportation and being treated differently because of being Latino are a day to day experience. Men's isolation starts with separation from their families, as is reported in the literature[ 10111320 - 22 ] and in this new growth community, its effects are amplified in part because 2 latinos plow unprotected are scattered throughout the County rather than residing in a central location.
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Loneliness has been reported to be an important contributor 2 latinos plow unprotected depression. A new study exploring overt discrimination and sense of identity may test this hypothesis. Survey and focus groups data showed that men used alcohol to mitigate the effects of loneliness 2 latinos plow unprotected counterproductive results, confirming findings from current literature.
Extramarital sex was reported as common in the focus groups and sexually transmitted diseases were a concern, confirming findings from assessments that focused specifically on sexual behaviors.
This difference in results may be due to our broad focus or to the characteristics of this new growth community. According to our results, interventions targeting sexual health would be important but insufficient. To more adequately prevent a broad range of health problems, comprehensive interventions aimed at creating a healthy social environment are necessary.
These may include interpersonal interventions that increase men's connections to community resources, programs that empower men in emerging communities, or policy interventions aimed at decreasing the risks of deportation.
We did not ask specifically for information on men's masculinity and the evidence that emerged was not enough to make any claims about the impact of migration on it as suggested by others.
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We did observe that masculinity is related to healthcare seeking behavior. Prior research has conceptualized prevention as use of health services and said that machismo is one of the main causes of the lack of prevention orientation among Latinos[ 29 ].
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In our data, men reported enduring pain and illness for a long time before seeking help. Providers tended to view prevention as healthcare utilization, unlike immigrant men, who conceptualized health in a more holistic way.
Men expressed that their social and personal situation precluded them from doing what 2 latinos plow unprotected said benefitted their health. However, a lifestyle intervention can only be successful in a context that is conducive the health behaviors. Watch Latinos Eloy And Cayo plowing unprotected at Gay Male Tube. rating: %.
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